Commit 39d29c4e authored by Laurent Heirendt's avatar Laurent Heirendt
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Merge branch 'add-git-training-march-21' into 'develop'

add slides for upcoming git training

See merge request !96
parents a07b8438 640b8b76
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# Best practices
* `pull` before `push`
* Work on your <font color="red">own</font> branch (in your own fork), and **not** on `master` and **not** on `develop`
* Do **not push** to `master`, but **submit a Pull Request (PR)**
* Get your code **reviewed** by your peers (submit a PR!)
* Submit a PR **often**!
* `clone` a repository, do not download the `.zip` file.
* Do **not** combine `git` commands
```bash
$ git commit -am "myMessage" # do not do this
```
* Stage only 1 file at once using
```bash
$ git add myFile.md
```
* Commit **only a few files** at once (after multiple separate `git add` commands)
* `Push` often - avoid conflicts
Remember: **A `push` a day keeps conflicts away!**
# Development scheme
Generally, in a repository, there are guidelines for contributing.
<div class="fragment">
A common development scheme is dual with a:
- **development** version of the code on `develop`
- **stable** version of the code on `master`
A **version** of the code is referred to as a **branch**.
<div class="fragment">
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
<font color="red">In the practice repository, the development branch is called `develop`!</font>
<div class="fragment">
![bulb](slides/img/bulb.png) Use this dual development scheme for your own repositories!
# Branches
A **version** of the code (i.e., a **branch**) is made up of a sequence of code changes.
<div class="fragment">
These individual code changes are called **commits**.
For instance, the `master` and `develop` branches can be represented as a timeline:
<img src="slides/img/branch-master.png" class="branch-master" height="500em"/>
# Switch between branches
List all branches of the repository with
```bash
$ git branch -a
```
Exit by typing `q`. The branch with the * is the current branch.
<div class="fragment">
Checkout another branch
```bash
$ git checkout <branchName>
```
<div class="fragment">
You can switch to the `develop` branch with
```bash
$ git checkout develop
```
If the local branch does not exist but the remote does, it is created automatically.
<div class="fragment">
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
# Create your own version
Assume that you want to work on a file:
<div class="fragment">
<font color="red">Create a new **branch**!</font>
```bash
$ git checkout -b myBranch
```
The `-b` flag creates the branch. Locally, you have your own version now:
<img src="slides/img/branch-create.png" class="branch-create" height="500em"/>
Push your version to your fork:
```bash
$ git push origin myBranch
```
<div class="fragment">
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
# How do I start working on a repository?
You have to `clone` it first:
```bash
$ git clone git@github.com:LCSB-BioCore/basic-git-practice.git
```
If you did not configure your SSH key, clone using HTTPS:
```bash
$ git clone https://github.com/LCSB-BioCore/basic-git-practice.git
```
You will be prompted to enter your credentials.
# How to configure `git`?
```bash
$ git config --global user.name "Firstname Lastname"
$ git config --global user.email "first.last@uni.lu"
```
Test whether your username and email have been registered
```bash
$ git config --list
```
This should list the configuration with `user.name` and `user.email`.
Exit by typing `q`.
# What is an SSH key?
An SSH key is a secure access credential.
**Principle**: <br><br>
Communicate **securely** with Github/Gitlab **without** entering the username/password.
# How do I get and set my SSH key?
Check if you already have an SSH key:
```bash
$ ls -al ~/.ssh
```
If there are 2 files named `id_rsa`, you have an SSH key.
If you don’t have yet an SSH key, you have to generate one:
```bash
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa # -b 4096
```
If you set a password to your key (recommended), add it to the `ssh-agent`:
```bash
$ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"
$ ssh-add -K ~/.ssh/id_rsa
```
Then, add the SSH key to Github/Gitlab.
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
\ No newline at end of file
# The 5 essential commands
**Yes**, you only need 5 commands!
`pull, status, add, commit, push`
or in other words (remember these!):
```bash
$ git pull <remote> <branch>
$ git status
$ git add myFile.md # example
$ git commit -m "myMessage" # example
$ git push <remote> <branch>
```
# Pull the latest version of an existing branch
Pull the latest revision on branch `myBranch`:
```bash
$ git pull origin myBranch
# Already up to date
```
<div class="fragment">
Verify its `status` with:
```bash
$ git status
```
# Modify a file
Copy the file `firstnameLastname.md` in the folder `_attendees` and rename it with your firstname:
```bash
$ cd _attendees
$ cp firstnameLastname.md myName.md
```
Then, make your changes with your favorite editor!
# Add your file to the stage
First, check the repository status
```bash
$ git status
# uncommitted changes (displayed in red)
```
<div class="fragment">
Now, add the file (bring it on stage)
```bash
$ git add myName.md # replace myName
$ git status
# returns the same as before, generally in green (means staged)
```
<div class="fragment">
**ADVANCED**: If there have been more changes after the file has been added, you can see your changes in the terminal
```bash
$ git diff
```
exit with `q`
# Add a commit message
```bash
$ git commit -m "Add the profile of <myName>"
$ git status
```
# Push your file to your fork
```bash
$ git push origin myBranch
```
<div class="fragment">
**ADVANCED**: see the log of all the commits (and your last one) in the terminal
```bash
$ git log
```
exit by typing `q`.
\ No newline at end of file
# What is a `fork`?
<center>
<img src="slides/img/fork.jpg" class="as-is" height="500em"/>
</center>
<!--http://www.cndajin.com/data/wls/246/22302193.jpg-->
# Not really ...
<center>
<img src="slides/img/fork-crossed.png" class="as-is" height="500em"/>
</center>
# What is a `fork`?
- In general, when contributing to a repository, you only have **read** access.
- In other words, you can only **pull** (unless it is your own repository or access has been granted).
- In general, you **cannot write** changes. In other words, you do not have **push** access.
- You have to work on your **own copy**.
- In other words, you have to work on your own <font color="red">**fork**</font>.
# How to get a fork?
Browse to the original repository and click on the button `Fork`:
![Fork the repo](https://help.github.com/assets/images/help/repository/fork_button.jpg)
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
# Time to practice!
Fork the practice repository: <br><br>
https://github.com/LCSB-BioCore/basic-git-practice<br><br>
Then, clone your fork to your home directory!
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
```bash
$ $ git clone git@github.com:<yourName>/basic-git-practice.git
```
Change to the practice directory with:
```bash
$ cd basic-git-practice
```
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
If you did not configure your SSH key, clone using HTTPS:
```bash
$ git clone https://github.com/<yourName>/basic-git-practice.git
```
# A note on shortcuts ...
<font color="red">
Any other rudimentary method such as
*'I simply download the `.zip` and unzip it - works like a charm!'*
shall **be avoided**!
</font>
<br>
**Why?**
# How to update my fork?
As you have your own fork, it will not automatically be updated once the original repository is updated.
![bulb](slides/img/bulb.png) You have to update it yourself!
<br>
**More on that later!**
# GitHub and GitLab
<img src="https://github.githubassets.com/images/modules/logos_page/GitHub-Mark.png" alt="GitHub" style="width: 200px;"/>
<img src="https://gitlab.com/gitlab-com/gitlab-artwork/raw/master/logo/logo-extra-whitespace.png" alt="GitLab" style="width: 200px;"/>
GitHub and GitLab are VCS systems.
GitHub/Gitlab are both **publicly available**, but GitLab can be **on-premise**.
Positive point: GitHub and GitLab are (almost) the same.
<img src="slides/img/icon-live-demo.png" height="100px">
- **GitHub**: [https://github.com](https://github.com)
- Public GitLab: [https://gitlab.com](https://gitlab.com)
- LCSB specific: [https://git-r3lab.uni.lu](https://git-r3lab.uni.lu)
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